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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that typically manifests in childhood and can persist into adulthood. ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with daily functioning. The symptoms can be categorized into two main types: inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.

Inattention Symptoms:

  1. Difficulty Sustaining Attention: Frequently becoming easily distracted by unrelated stimuli and having trouble staying focused on tasks.

  2. Poor Organization: Difficulty organizing tasks and activities, leading to messy workspaces and difficulty completing projects.

  3. Forgetfulness: Forgetfulness in daily activities, such as forgetting to do chores, keep appointments, or fulfill responsibilities.

  4. Avoidance of Tasks Requiring Sustained Mental Effort: Avoiding or being reluctant to engage in tasks that require prolonged mental effort, such as homework or paperwork.

  5. Frequent Careless Mistakes: Making frequent mistakes due to overlooking details or rushing through work.

  6. Difficulty Following Instructions: Having trouble following through on instructions or completing tasks, often due to not listening carefully.

  7. Losing Items: Misplacing personal belongings regularly, such as keys, wallets, or school supplies.

Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Symptoms:

  1. Fidgeting or Restlessness: Being unable to stay still, such as constant movement of hands or feet, tapping, or squirming in one's seat.

  2. Inability to Stay Seated: Difficulty remaining seated in situations where it's expected, such as in the classroom or during meetings.

  3. Excessive Talking: Talking excessively, interrupting others, and having difficulty waiting for one's turn in conversations.

  4. Impulsive Decision-Making: Acting without thinking about the consequences, making hasty decisions, and having difficulty delaying gratification.

  5. Difficulty Waiting: Impatience and difficulty waiting for one's turn, which can lead to impulsive behavior.

  6. Inability to Play Quietly: Difficulty engaging in quiet or leisurely activities without restlessness.

  7. Interrupting Others: Interrupting conversations, games, or activities without consideration for others.

 

It's important to note that the presentation of ADHD can vary. Some individuals may predominantly exhibit symptoms of inattention, while others may primarily display hyperactivity-impulsivity. Additionally, ADHD symptoms can change with age, and comorbid conditions, such as anxiety or learning disorders, may coexist. A comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional, typically a psychiatrist or psychologist, is necessary for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning. Treatment options may include behavioral interventions, psychoeducation, and, in some cases, medication.

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